Bruits du système

“Bruits système” dans le signal rétrodiffusé Chaque antenne est caractérisée par un certain niveau de bruit qui lui est propre. Même s’il n’existait aucune rétrodiffusion…

La géométrie des capteurs

La géométrie des images Les imageurs radar émettent des impulsions, puis enregistrent les  échos des objets détectés en les classant en fonction de leurs distances…

Polarisation

Qu’est-ce que la polarisation? Les systèmes de radar à synthèse d’ouverture (SAR) sont des instruments actifs, c’est-à-dire qu’ils disposent de leur propre source  d’énergie. Cela…

Longueur d’onde et fréquence

Ce chapitre est  consacré à une variable influençant fortement les images. Il s’agit de la longueur d’onde? Celle ci est reliée dans le vide par…

Ruido del sistema

Ruido sistemático en la señal de backscattering Cada antena produce una cierta cantidad de ruido. Por lo tanto, aunque toda la energía emitida se disperse…

Polarización

¿Qué es la polarización? Los sistemas radar de apertura sintética son instrumentos activos, es decir, que emiten su propia fuente de iluminación. Esto no sólo…

Geometría de adquisición

Geometría de adquisición Los sistemas radar tienen una forma muy singular de hacer mediciones. Se envían pulsos de microondas hacia la superficie terrestre y los…

Longitud de Onda/Frecuencia

En este tema aprenderá acerca de dos características principales que influyen en las imágenes de microondas, la longitud de onda y la frecuencia. Ambas están…

Wavelength & Frequency

In this topic you will learn about two core features influencing microwave imaging, wavelength and frequency. Both are closely related and have great impact on…

Polarisation

What is the polarisation? Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are active instruments, meaning that they have their own source of illumination. Not only does this…

Sensor Geometry

Imaging geometry? Radar systems have a very unique way of making measurements. Microwave pulses are sent out towards the Earth’s surface and the echoes are…

System Noise

Systematic noise in the backscatter signal Every antenna produces a certain amount of noise. Therefore, even if all of the emitted energy is being scattered…

References

  • Bourgeau-Chavez, L.L., Lee, Y.M., Battaglia, M., Endres, S.L., Laubach, Z.M. & Scarbrough, K. (2016): Identification of
    Woodland Vernal Pools with Seasonal Change PALSAR Data for Habitat Conservation. In: Remote Sensing, 8, 490.
  • Clinuvel (2019):Understanding the Electromagnetic Spectrum. <https://www.clinuvel.com>.
  • Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing & Processing (CRISP, 2001): SAR Imaging – Frequency, Polarisation and Incident Angle. Microwave Frequency. <https://crisp.nus.edu.sg/~research/tutorial/freqpol.htm>.
  • Edmund Optics Inc. (2019): Introduction to Polarization.
    <https://www.edmundoptics.com/resources/application-notes/optics/introduction-to-polarization/>.
  • Esch, S. (2018): Determination of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Parameters from Spaceborne C-Band SAR on Agricultural
    Areas. Dissertation. University of Cologne.
  • European Space Agency (ESA, 2013): Satellite frequency bands. <https://www.esa.int/Applications/Telecommunications_Integrated_Applications/Satellite_frequency_bands>
  • European Space Agency (ESA, 2014): Special Features of ASAR.
    <https://earth.esa.int/handbooks/asar/CNTR1-1-5.html>.
  • European Space Agency (ESA, 2019): Radar Course 2. <https://earth.esa.int/..,>.
  • European Space Agency (ESA, 2019): Radar Course 3. <https://earth.esa.int/..,>.
  • Evans, T. (2013): Habitat Mapping of the Brazilian Pantanal using Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery and Object Based
    Image Analysis. <Evans Master Thesis>.
  • Flores-Anderson, A.I., Herndon, K.E., Thapa, R.B. & Cherrington, E. (2018): The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
    Handbook: Comprehensive Methodologies for Forest Monitoring and Biomass Estimation.
    <https://gis1.servirglobal.net/TrainingMaterials/SAR/SARHB_FullRes.pdf>.
  • Gaber, A., Soliman, F., Koch, M. & El.Baz, F. (2015): Using full-polarimetric SAR data to characterize the surface
    sediments in desert areas: A case study in El-Gallaba Plain, Egypt. In: Remote Sensing of Environment, 162, 11-28.
  • Jagdhuber, T. (2012): Soil parameter retrieval under vegetation cover using SAR polarimetry. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ.
    Potsdam, Germany [Online]. Available: http//: opus.kobv.de.
  • Jack, H. (2013). Manufacturing Processes. Surfaces. <http://engineeronadisk.com/V3/engineeronadisk-67.html>.
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, 2019): Polarimetry. <https://nisar.jpl.nasa.gov/technology/polsar/>.
  • Le Toan, T. (2007): Introduction to SAR Remote Sensing. Advanced Training Course on Land Remote Sensing. <https://earth.esa.int/landtraining07/D1LA1-LeToan.pdf>.
  • Meng, H., Wang, X., Chong, J., Wei, X. & Kong, W. (2017): Doppler Spectrum-Based NRCS Estimation Method for Low
    Scattering Areas in Ocean SAR Images. In: Remote Sensing, 9, 219.
  • Moreira, A., Prats-Iraola, P., Younis, M., Krieger, G., Hajnsek, I. & Papathanassiou, K. P. (2013): A Tutorial on Synthetic
    Aperture Radar. In: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing.
  • Nave, R. (2005): HyperPhysics. The Rayleigh Criterion.
    <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/phyopt/Raylei.html>.
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate (NASA, 2010): Introduction to the Electromagnetic Spectrum. Retrieved [10.03.2020], from NASA Science website: http://science.nasa.gov/ems/01_intro
  • Pohl, C., Tempfli, K., & Huurneman, G.C. (2004): Active Sensors. In: Kerle, N., Janssen, L.L.F. & Huurneman, G.C. (Editors): Principles of Remote Sensing. An introductory textbook. ITC Educational Textbook Series, 95-120.
  • Richards, J.A. (2009): Remote Sensing with Imaging Radar.  <https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783642020193>.
  • Schumann, G.J.-P. & Moller, D.K. (2015): Microwave remote sensing of flood inundation. In: Physics and Chemistry of
    the Earth
    , 83, 84-95.
  • Small, D. (2011): Flattening Gamma: Radiometric Terrain Correction for SAR Imagery. In: IEEE Transactions on
    Geoscience and Remote Sensing
    , 49, 3081-3093.
  • Utah State University (2019): Orchard irrigation. <https://www.intermountainfruit.org/orchard-irrigation/swc>.
  • Woodhouse, I. H. (2006): Introduction to microwave remote sensing. Taylor & Francis, New York.
    <https://www.crcpress.com/Introduction-to-Microwave-Remote-Sensing/Woodhouse/p/book/9780415271233>.