Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

The Zero Hunger Goal and its targets


Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

2.1 By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round2.1.1 Prevalence of undernourishment

2.1.2 Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)
2.2 By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons2.2.1 Prevalence of stunting (height for age <-2 standard deviation from the median of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age

2.2.2 Prevalence of malnutrition (weight for height >+2 or <-2 standard deviation from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age, by type (wasting and overweight)

2.2.3 Prevalence of anaemia in women aged 15 to 49 years, by pregnancy status (percentage)
2.3 By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment2.3.1 Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming/pastoral/forestry enterprise size

2.3.2 Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status
2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality2.4.1 Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture
2.5 By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed2.5.1 Number of plant and animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium- or long-term conservation facilities

2.5.2 Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk of extinction
2.a Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development, and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular, least developed countries2.a.1 The agriculture orientation index for government expenditures

2.a.2 Total official flows (official development assistance plus other official flows) to the agriculture sector
2.b Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round2.b.1 Agricultural export subsidies
2.c Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility2.c.1 Indicator of food price anomalies
Global indicator framework for the Sustainable Development Goals and targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

Add more of what we’d like the learners to know, not only recent developments

Targets as interactive maps 2017:

2.1.1 Prevalence of undernourishment – share of the population that are undernourished: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/prevalence-of-undernourishment

2.1.2 Prevalence of food insecurity: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/share-of-population-with-moderate-or-severe-food-insecurity

2.2.1 Prevalence of childhood stunting: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/share-of-children-younger-than-5-who-suffer-from-stunting

2.2.2 Prevalence of childhood malnutrition (wasting or overweight): https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/share-of-children-with-a-weight-too-low-for-their-height-wasting

2.3.1 Production per labour unit: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/agriculture-value-added-per-worker-wdi?time=2016

2.3.2 Income of small-scale food producers: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/income-small-scale-food-producers

2.4.1 Sustainable food production – no data (It is currently not clear or well-defined what constitutes productive and sustainable agricultural practice.)

2.5.1 Genetic resources in conservation facilities: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/number-of-accessions-of-plant-genetic-resources-secured-in-conservation-facilities https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/proportion-of-animal-breeds-genetic-conservation

2.5.2 Local breeds at risk of extinction: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/proportion-of-local-breeds-at-risk-of-extinction

2.A.1 Agriculture orientation index: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/agriculture-orientation-index

2.A.2 Official flows to agriculture: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/total-financial-assistance-and-flows-for-agriculture-by-recipient

2.B.1 Agricultural export subsidies: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/agricultural-export-subsidies

2.C.1 Food price anomalies: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/domestic-food-price-volatility-index

SDG report 2019:

  • The number of people suffering from hunger has been on the rise again since 2014
  • Stunting – growth and cognitive development of children is affected
  • Overweight is increasing in all age groups
  • Reasons for hunger: conflicts, climate-induced shocks, economic slowdowns worldwide
  • Specifically, attention needs to be given to increasing agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, implementing resilient agricultural practices, and ensuring the proper functioning of markets
  • HERE alternatively Andy Nelson’s talk about the status of hunger
  • About 821 mio. people were undernourished in 2017, the same number as in 2010
  • The prevalence of undernourishment has remained virtually the same in the past three years
  • The situation deteriorated significantly in SSA, where the number of undernourished people increased from 195 mio. in 2014 to 237 mio. in 2017 (remeins the region with the highest prevalence of hunger)
  • The share of small-scale food producers in countries with data in Africa, Asia and Latin America ranges from 40 to 85 per cent (compared to <10 per cent in Europe), with systematically lower food security and lower incomes –> it is key to target these people
  • Weather-induced shocks, civil insecurity and declining food production have contributed to high food prices in at least two dozen countries worldwide

SDG report 2020

  • Due to COVID-19, the situation is likely to get worse owing to economic slowdowns and disruptions caused by a pandemic-triggered recession
  • In addition, the desert locust upsurge in six Eastern African countries and Yemen remeins alarming
  • The recent increase in food insecurity was primarily due to worsening situations in SSA and Latin America
  • The estimates for 2016-2019 indicate that food insecurity was higher among adult women than men in every region
  • COVID-19 impacts food security indirectly by reducing purchasing power and the capacity to produce and distribute food, which affects the most vulnerable populations –> in 2020, up to 132 mio. MORE people may suffer from undernourishment because of COVID
  • The lockdown measures have caused businesses and local markets to close, and small-scale food producers are often not allowed to get their products to consumers –> they are amongst the ones hit hardest by the pandemic
  • Chronic undernutrition, or stunting, also puts children at greater risk of dying from common infections and is associated with poor cognitive development
  • Investment in agriculture, relative to its contribution to the economy, continues to decline
  • Sharp increases in food prices were largely concentrated in SSA in 2019: In Eastern Africa, extreme weather conditions reduced agricultural outputs and hampered transport, shrinking market supplies and increasing the price of staple crops. Strong regional demand for exports exerted additional upward pressure on prices. In Western Africa, lingering civil insecurity continued to hamper market activities, thereby adversely impacting food prices. Prices in Southern Africa reached record highs owing to weather-induced shocks and significant economic challenges, including strong depreciation of local currencies
  • The deprecation of local currencies also contributed to high food prices in other regions, such as Latin America; in 2020, an upsurge in food demand and disruptions to supply chains triggered by the pandemic underpinned food price increases in several countries in the second half of March through April